Hey! I needed that!

To go to trial this week is the dispute between a Kentucky man and a surgeon over the necessity of amputating the patient’s penis during a surgical operation in 2008 will go to trial this week.

The doctor insists that he found cancer in the man’s penis and that it had to be removed, says the physician’s attorney. The surgery was supposed to be a circumcision and was never actually authorized nor was given a chance to seek a second opinion.

It reminds me of the movie Malice, when Alec Baldwin is performing an operation on Nicole Kidman and while she is under the knife Dr. Baldwin says he must remove the patient’s uterus and husband Bill Pullman gives permission. Upon waking she sues Pullman for giving the permission without her consent, before protagonist, Pullman, realizes at the end that the whole things was a set-up to squeeze him dry.

Jury selection will begin Thursday in the lawsuit brought by Phillip Seaton of Waddy and his wife, Deborah, against Dr. John Patterson of Louisville.

The Seatons originally sued Dr. Patterson in Shelby County Circuit Court in 2008. Now in his 60s Seaton was having the procedure on Oct. 19, 2007, to better treat inflammation. The lawsuit claims Patterson removed Seaton’s penis without consulting either Phillip or Deborah Seaton.

George said during a pre-trial hearing on the 2nd of August that the case comes down to whether jurors believe the amputation “was a necessary part of the surgery.’

George said that the doctor’s post-surgical notes show that Patterson thought he detected cancer and removed the penis.

However, George added, the situation was not an emergency.

Robinson said previously that Patterson, a Kentucky-based urologist, had permission to perform any medical procedure deemed necessary and that the doctor found cancer in the organ while the patient was under anesthesia. Robinson said that
Patterson “had no reasonable option” but to remove the cancer.

“Mr. Seaton’s problem was not the surgery, it was the cancer,” Robinson said in 2008.

“I’m optimistic we can seat this jury,” Robinson told the press during the pre-trial hearing.

The Seatons want unspecified damages from Patterson for “loss of service, love and affection.”

The couple also sued Jewish Hospital, where the surgery took place. The hospital has settled with the Seatons for an undisclosed sum.

Foreign Accent Syndrome? That’s right, Foreign Accent Syndrome!

Karen Butler is from Newport, Oregon but she speaks with an Irish accent. Though, she did not acquire it from spending time across the Atlantic. She picked it up at the dentist’s office.

Butler explained recently on the Today Show, she to the dentists’ for a surgical procedure about a year and a half ago. When she recovered from the anesthesia, the funny voice she was speaking with seemed to be a normal reaction to the procedure, along with the swelling and soreness that is. But as time went on, she healed from the surgery, her body returned to normal yet the voice did not go away.

The culprit may is an extremely rare condition called Foreign Accent Syndrome, triggered by a stroke or brain damage.

Dr. Ted Lowenkopf, medical director of the Providence Stroke Center in Oregon, said on “Today”:

“It’s so rare — less than 100 cases ever reported — that the average neurologist, even a stroke neurologist, would not see a case in their lifetime.”

The condition remains very mysterious, however, the best known case is probably of 30-year-old Georg Herman Monrad-Krohn, who picked up a German accent after being hit by a shrapnel in Oslo from a German air raid in 1941.

Some reports have indicated the condition can clear up over time, NBC’s chief medical editor Dr. Nancy Snyderman said during the segment. However, Butler is not demanding a cure, she exactly enjoys it.
It’s just like a new toy.”

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Success and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

Here’s a something about neuro-linguistic programming that I’ll bet you didn’t know. Your neurological system regulates how your body functions. Language determines how you communicate and interface with others and your programming determines the kinds of world models you create. Hence, we derive the term: Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

A pragmatic school of thought or ‘epistemology’, NLP addresses the many levels involved in the unique phenomenon of being a human being. NLP is a multi-dimensional process involving the development of flexibility and behavioral competence; though it also involves strategic thinking and a firm grasp on the cognitive and mental processes that explain human behavior.

The course for Neuro-Linguistic Programming provides the student with the skills and tools necessary for the development of individual excellence; it also establishes a network of presuppositions and empowering beliefs about what human beings really are; what communication is and what the process of change is really all about.

Neuro-linguistic programming is about self-discovery, exploring mission and identity. Furthermore, it delivers a framework for understanding and relating the physical part to the spiritual essence of human experience, reaching far beyond us as individuals to our families, communities and global systems.

As human beings, we have difficulty comprehending what is our minds and what is reality. Perceptions of reality is what we are restricted to experiencing. Our experiences and responses to the world surrounding us happens, therefore, mainly through our sensory representational systems.

The processes which occur within a human being and between human beings and their environment are systemic processes. Our societies, our bodies, and our universe make “an ecology of complex systems and sub-systems all of which interact with and mutually influence each other.” A give and take system; so it is impossible to totally isolate any part of the system from the rest. These systems are based on ‘self-organizing’ principles and naturally seek optimal states of balance or homeostasis.

All of the models and techniques of NLP are based on the combination of these two principles. In the belief system of NLP it is not possible for human beings to know objective reality. Wisdom, ethics and ecology do not derive from having the one ‘right’ or ‘correct’ map of the world, because human beings would not be capable of making one. Rather, the goal is to create the richest map possible that respects the systemic nature and ecology of ourselves and the world we live in. The people who have the most power are the people who have a map of the world allowing them to perceive the greatest number of available perspectives and choices.

So, as you will learn in the NLP course neruo-linguistic programming is a method of enriching the decisions you have and perceive as available in the world around you.

The Latest on Humacyte

The artificial vessels made by Humacyte do not totally mimic nature, that is to say, they are missing an important ingredient of natural vessels. That is, the protein elastin.

Bioengineers at the University of Pittsburgh coaxed engineered vessels to create elastin. This rubber-band material facilitates arteries and veins to snap into shape after each and every pulse. Actually, elastin has long been one of the great challenges in any attempt to make artificial blood vessels. Without elastin, a vessel could eventually become stretched out like an old rubber band; in turn, a stretched-out blood vessel can mean a dangerous aneurysm.

The study leader, Yadong Wang, said “Elastin has been very elusive.” Scientists can increase the protein’s levels by adding artificial genes, but treatments like these could turn out to be risky. Wang and colleagues made grafts with 20% of the elastin found in normal vessels, the highest amount yet reported. Wang also said the body’s cells can add more elastin once the graft is implanted.

Wang’s group convinced cells to manufacture elastin by growing baboon smooth-muscle cells in an elastic, biodegradable scaffold. The process took just three weeks and now the scientists are testing their grafts in rats.

While Wang’s vessels have only one-fifth of the natural amount of elastin, this is more than other researchers can boast. For instance, Robert Tranquillo, of the University of Minnesota, estimates that he gets 1% to 10% in his own artificial grafts.

Wang’s artificial vessels may withstand some 200 millimeters of mercury pressure; a healthy blood pressure maxes out at one-hundred and twenty.

David Geary’s Shrinking Brain

David GearyNew research shows that over the past 30,000 years, human brains have shrunk. This is not a sign, however, humans are growing dumber but that evolution is causing the key motor to be leaner and more proficient. The average size has decreased roughly 10 percent during this period from 1,500 to 1,359 cubic centimeters.

The measurements were taken from skulls in Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

Other anthropologists, however, note that brain shrinkage isn’t surprising given that the larger and stronger we are the more gray matter is needed to control such a larger mass. The Neanderthal, a cousin of the homo Sapien, who vanished some 30 millennia ago, was much larger and had a bigger brain.

The Cro-Magnons who made cave paintings of large animals in the Lascaux cave over 17,000 years ago had the biggest brain and were stronger.

David Geary, a psychology professor at the University of Missouri researched the evolution of skull sizes 1.9 million to 10,000 years old as our cousins and ancestors lived in a more complex social environment. Professor Geary used population density to measure social complexity, with the hypothesis that the more humans there are living closer together, the better the exchange is between groups, the division of labor and interactions between people.

Brain size, they found, decreased as population increased.

Such downsizing, however, doesn’t mean modern humans are less intelligent than their ancestors, but that they developed in a different way.

What’s The Deal With Coffee?

This piece is loosely based on information, originally brought to public attention in 1997 via Stephen R. Braun’s 224-page book: Buzz: The Science and Lore of Alcohol and Caffeine.

First of all, know this: the human brain, and caffeine are not explained easily by modern science. When you are awake, brain neurons are shooting away rapidly, and as a byproduct they produce something called adenosine. When adenosine levels climb to a certain point in the spinal cord and brain, you will become sleepy. Out of the body’s adenosine receptors, caffeine interacts with the A1 receptor the most. Caffeine functions as an adenosine copycat.

So caffeine is not as simple as a direct stimulant, such as amphetamines; its effect on alertness is more subtle than that.
Caffeine can enhance work output for work which is straightforward and does not require lots of abstract and subtle thinking, in which, coffee has proved to help increase output and quality. In addition, caffeine has been seen to improve memory creation and retention when it comes to “declarative memory,” which what students use to remember lists or answers to questions on their exams.
When it comes to caffeine’s effect on your work, you will do better to think speed and not power.
The effectiveness of caffeine consumption varies significantly from person to person, because of genetic and other factors. The average half-life of caffeine is about five hours in a human body. Women taking oral birth control medication need about twice as long to process caffeine. Women whom are between the ovulation and beginning of their menstruation period see a similar, if less severe, extended half-life. And as one starts to take in caffeine regularly, the body and mind build develop a tolerance to it.

Vitamin B-12 Deficiencies in Pregnant Women Linked to Birth Defects

Pregnant women with vitamin B-12 deficiencies are more prone to have babies with birth defects, a recent study found. The findings concluded that women who do not consume enough foods containing adequate amounts of this vitamin, otherwise known as folic acid, are more likely to give birth to babies suffering from a condition known as neural tube defect (NTD) ; a serious and often fatal condition resulting from inadequate development of the brain and spinal cord which often results in death. Although all pregnant women are at risk in regards to this condition affecting their unborn child, those women with folic acid deficiencies have a much greater risk in giving this condition to their unborn child.

Vitamin B-12 is usually found naturally in foods like meats, milk, cheese and eggs. Women who are vegans, or complete vegetarians (who do not consume either meat, eggs or dairy products) are at greater risk of being deficient in folic acid and thus giving birth to a NTD affected child. Vegan women can offset not receiving folic acid in meat and dairy products by consuming certain kinds of nutritional yeast, fortified cereals, fortified soy milk, foods known as fortified meat analogues ( wheat gluten, and soy beans for example); and by taking fortified vitamin B-12 supplements.
Women with the highest risks are those who have a pregnancy blood levels of less than 250 ng/L These women can greatly reduce the risks having a NTD affected child by increasing their vitamin B-12 levels to an amount above 300 ng/L.

For these reasons, it is vitally important for all pregnant women, especially those who have been found to have vitamin B-12 deficiencies, to take a folic acid food supplement before and during the first few weeks of pregnancy. By their doing so, at least 50% or more cases of NTD afflicted births can be prevented. Since many pregnancies are not “planned”, women of child bearing age should consume at least 400 micrograms of folic acid daily.

Again, women who are vegan vegetarians should consume either meat or dairy substitutes, as noted above, or a vitamin B-12 supplement.

Human Muscles: the “workaholics” of the body

While the human body is considered as a wonder of Devine Creation, human muscles are responsible for our body’s total movements and functions. Derived from the Latin term musculus, muscles are groups to cell tissue known as contractile tissue and are formed by mesodermal layers of embryonic germ cells.

There are basically three main classifications of muscles in all primates, including Man. These are the skeletal, the cardiac, and the smooth muscles. Skeletal muscles are the largest group as they are attached to the body’s skeletal system and are responsible for virtually all voluntary movements. Even eye and tongue muscles are considered to be skeletal muscles as they are attached to the human skull which is part of the overall skeletal system. An adult human male has between 40 – 50% skeletal muscles, while a female has between 30 – 40%. Since skeletal muscles are responsible for motion as posture, the muscle fiber in them is much stronger and ‘stringy’ that those found in either cardiac or smooth muscles. Anybody eating a piece of beef chuck steak, which comes from the skeletal muscles of a cow, can testify to this fact.

Smooth muscles are found inside the body and are responsible for the functions of internal organs such as the lungs, stomach, intestines, uterus, bladder, and blood vessels. Their fibers are shorter and more ‘smooth’ than skeletal muscle fiber, but their functions are no less important as they control the functions of the body’s vital organs

Cardiac muscles are found within the heart and though considered as involuntary muscles, are responsible for operating the “pump” that sends life give blood to all parts of the body.

Many who have studied the science of anatomy have debated on which muscles are the strongest in the human body. Some have said that muscles such as those found in the limbs (hands arms, legs, etc) are the strongest as they are responsible for motions such walking/running, grasping, and lifting. Others have said that lateral muscles located along the human spine are the strongest as they help assist the spine support the entire body.

In actuality, however, the strongest muscles are found in the facial muscles, including the jaw muscles, tongue muscles and eye muscles. The jaw muscles, in fact, have tremendous strength as they are responsible not only for mouth movements, but for chewing and swallowing the very food we eat. Eye muscles, though small in comparison with others, also are very strong as they control our constant eye movements. And the tongue muscles, which control our speech, are also considered as some of our strongest muscles. Anyone who has a “gift for gab” will appreciate this fact.

Since humans belong to animal species known as vertebrates (those animals having internal skeletal systems) studies of the origins all vertebrates indicates that they came from a common origin that appeared on earth more than 700,000 years ago, beginning with fish and other sea creatures, that evolved into amphibians, reptiles, then on into birds and mammals.

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